Native Plants of Cape Cod
Native trees, shrubs and perennials are a great addition to the garden. They are built for our climate and tend to do well with less care, plus they are the preferred plants of pollinators in this area. Here are a few varieties of trees, shrubs and perennials that we would like to feature in this Native category:
Picea glauca or White Spruce: Customers are often asking about native evergreens that will get large and tolerate the harsh winter wind. This is a North American native plant which has naturalized in much of New England and is recommended by the Cape Cod Extension service as it will tolerate direct coastal exposure, which is a rarity. On Cape Cod, White Spruce will grow to a height of 30′ and a spread of 12-20′ at maturity. It grows at a medium rate of about a foot a year. Like most needled evergreens it wants a good half day or more of full sun, has a Christmas tree type growth habit and is hardy in zones 2 through 6. It is best in a sandy, acidic loam and well-drained soil. White Spruce be used as a specimen tree, windbreak or screening.
A native deciduous tree that people are not as familiar with is Nyssa sylvatica or Tupelo tree. This is a slow growing deciduous tree that will get 30+’ tall and 20′ wide. It requires at least a half day of full sunlight and does well in acidic soil. Its flowers, although insignificant in size and color, provide nutrition for bees in early spring and the fruit in the fall attracts many birds. Perhaps its best feature is its fall color showing many shades of yellow, orange, bright red, purple and scarlet.
A tried and true native that will tolerate harsh coastal conditions is Myrica pensylvanica or Northern Bayberry. Bayberry will grow 5-10′ tall and wide. It is a deciduous shrub that wants full sun to part shade and likes acidic soil. Although in the nursery trade they do not identify male and female Bayberry, you will need a male in the group for the female to fruit. It is this fruit which one uses to produce candles, soaps and sealing wax. The fruit also attracts birds.
Here are some outstanding varieties of early-blooming Native Perennials:
Aruncus diocus, also known as Goats Beard, has a creamy white bloom April-May, similar to an Astilbe, but with an earlier flower. This large perennial will grow 4-6’ tall with a width of 2-4’ so it needs plenty of room to grow. It is also big enough where it can create a screen when planted in mass but remember it will die back in the fall. Goats Beard is a host to the Azure caterpillars, provides an early food source to our pollinators, and will also provide food for birds if you leave the seed heads in the fall. It will do best in part shade to full sun and likes a moist soil, but can tolerate times of drought once established. Not only is it easy to grow and great for our native pollinators, but it is also deer and rabbit resistant!
Dicentra exima or fringed bleeding heart, also deer and rabbit resistant is most definitely pollinator perfect. Native bees and hummingbirds love the nectar of the early rose-pink flowers. The silver-grey foliage is finely cut giving great contrast to larger leaved plants like Hosta and dark leaves such as Bugbane (Cimicifuga). Loving the part to full shade, they do well if left to naturalize or you can extend bloom by deadheading.
Baptisia australis or False Indigo is a beautiful native perennial that becomes quite shrub-like after a few years. Growing 3-4’ tall and 3-4’ wide, the purple lupine-like flowers appear in May-June above pea-like foliage. The flowers are followed by black seed pods that also add interest. Growing best in full sun and well-drained soil, these plants are very long lived and host many native butterflies.
Download a full copy of our Native Perennial plants. Click the image below: